SA Journal of Education, Volume 40, Supplement 2, December 2020

Inclusive education for students with severe or profound and multiple learning difficulties: Identification of influencing factors and challenges

Hamza Mahmoud Al Shoura, Aznan Che Ahmad


In the study reported on here we examined the extent of pre-service teachers’ supportiveness for educational inclusion (EI) of students with severe or profound and multiple learning difficulties (SPMLD) in order to identify their attitudinal predictors, as well as the challenges faced in such a process. An attitudinal survey with 33 items was developed to collect data from 542 participants. The results show that the attitudes/beliefs of pre-service teachers (ABpST) regarding inclusion were moderate to positive and strengthened across the teachers’ knowledge and experiences. However, some variations, based on their characteristics and study constructs were revealed. The findings also illustrate the combined effects of practical knowledge and courses, besides teaching and working experiences in shaping ABpST attitudes towards inclusion of SPMLD students. The implications of these results for educators and national education institutions and other international universities are discussed.

ORCiD iDs of authors
Hamza Mahmoud Al Shoura -
Aznan Che Ahmad -

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